Friday, 27 June 2014

What is “Cultural IQ” training and does it really work?

IQ was once the only game in town. Now it rubs shoulders with a gaggle of human ability measures such as Emotional Intelligence, Empathy Quotient, and Rationality Quotient. The increasingly interconnected and diverse world of work has magnified interest in another newcomer: CQ, or cultural intelligence. With it come courses promising to prepare their students to work with colleagues, partners and customers who have different values and norms. A new paper investigates how effective this training really is.

The researchers, led by Jacob Eisenberg, investigated cultural awareness training that had a narrow, academic focus, predicting that its impact should be limited to the more intellectual aspects of CQ: cognitive CQ (spotting trends and gathering explicit knowledge on how cultures work), and metacognitive CQ (awareness of what you do and don’t know about other cultures). The training involved lectures and seminars led by professors in the manner of a traditional academic program; these cost-effective methods reflect those typically used in this educational industry.

The first study involved students (mostly Austrians) on a Study Abroad programme intended to increase their language knowledge, expose them to different cultures, and introduce them to different teaching methods. Students on this programme also completed a 3-day cultural management course. At the end of the course, the students rated themselves significantly improved at cognitive and meta-cognitive elements, but not at the other aspects of CQ, including motivational CQ (the amount of emotional resources put towards cultural sensitivity), and behavioural CQ (adopting behaviours such as appropriate tone of voice or recognising personal space).

This finding was replicated in a second study with a more diverse sample of students from 46 nationalities, who received short slots of training spread over several months as part of their International Management Masters.

Eisenberg’s team predicted that participants who had lived in more countries (with minimum stays of six months) should have higher CQ than their more sheltered peers, but that training should close this gap. This was partially borne out. In Study 1, residence history was more strongly correlated with pre-training than post-training levels of cognitive and metacognitive CQ. Meanwhile, the correlation between residence history and motivational CQ was unchanged by the training, strengthening the hypothesis that academic CQ training influences only cognitive aspects. In Study 2, which showed generally weaker effects (perhaps these more international students had less to gain from the training) these trends didn’t reach significance.

The second study also included a no-training control group, who failed to show the benefits enjoyed by the CQ training group. However, it’s a shame that the matching was poor - the controls were retested after three weeks, whereas for the training group eight weeks on average elapsed before retesting. Perhaps the CQ boost was only found in the training group because they spent five extra weeks on their Masters course, surrounded by students from diverse cultures, before they were finally tested?

Looking across the evidence, there’s a good case for claiming that cognitive elements of cultural intelligence can be selectively developed through academic training, including being conscious of how much you don’t yet know about other cultures. But such training doesn’t seem to help people to actually alter behaviour, nor to maintain an appetite for ambiguous cultural environments, arguably even more vital to adapting to a culture. Methods matter, and if you want people to feel or act differently, traditional teaching seems unlikely to be enough, however convenient it may be for the industry to provide.

Eisenberg, J., Lee, H., Bruck, F., Brenner, B., Claes, M., Mironski, J., & Bell, R. (2013). Can Business Schools Make Students Culturally Competent? Effects of Cross-Cultural Management Courses on Cultural Intelligence Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12 (4), 603-621 DOI: 10.5465/amle.2012.0022

Post written by Alex Fradera (@alexfradera) for the BPS Research Digest.


  1. Couldn't, agree more, maybe the law and what is "criminal" is dictated by these kinds of people? I also believe that psychopaths are a lot more prevalent than we think, how else would the majority agree with what is clearly not right? It makes you wonder how morality evolved in these circumstances because the majority in my view do not have any of the traits of morality. There are a lot that think they do yet it is just arrogance. Morality obviously evolved to help us save ourselves from ourselves (or the psychopaths!). What we need is a new understanding of what is right and wrong and it should focus on selfishness and unselfishness.

  2. Kylie Wiggins2:38 pm

    I have heard music on side only as I am waking up. I am definitely awake and not dreaming and the music is in my ear that is buried in my pillow. It is strange because I do not ever recognise the tune. It had happened about 3 or 4 times, but not recently. I would like it to happen again to try to understand it. Does anyone think it could be our brains picking up radio frequencies?

  3. No, you are wrong. She has a gift to receive musical inspiration. Teach her to meditate or pray. The words will come...

  4. Correct, finally someone understands. Words will come...

  5. Thanks for this interesting article. It quite frankly makes me wonder whether even attempting to label psychopathy in non-criminal activities is really productive or just a satisfying academic exercise for psychologists. Why? Because, of course, sometimes when one person hurts another repeatedly in a legal setting the "victim" may consider the "perpetrator" antisocial. Is the other party's attorney in a lawsuit a pyschopath if he or she asks unnecessary but emotionally painful questions, overzealously in the context of a case? Or is an ex who cheats and lies necessarily psychopathic? These people are not being kind, they are being selfish and manipulative, but perhpas only from the perspective of those who are really aware of the meanness involved. So instead of endeavoring to label a law abiding individual as a psychopath who is non-criminal, maybe it would be more productive for the society as a whole to return to a model of individual virtuous versus non-virtuous behavior in any given situation (e.g. such as the model delineated by Judeo-Christian and many Islamic scholars centuries ago?)

  6. I hear music when i'm falling asleep. I'm clearly still awake because right at that moment i know its just in my head, but its so loud and clear. yesterday i heard a song from lana del rey, it was so loud but i held myself awake and tried to keep the song in my mind. it was a whole song, i could hear every word, btw it was a pretty nice song. i googled the lyrics the next day, but that song doesnt exist, not from her or anyone else. it was so strainge because it was just this whole really nice song and she sang really beautiful:D

  7. On my previous computer speakers i often hear a very faint radio station. This was actually a radio station and the electronics were picking it up and amplifying it enough to be heard by people with good hearing. I often hear old tv's high pitch sound while nobody else can (even same age/younger). For other people worrying: any source of white noise/most electronics can actually pick up radio stations and make the sound very weakly audible. There have been cases where people could also hear radio stations because of metal tooth fillings. You can make a radio without power source and can make it quite audible so it's all very possible. You are more likely to pick up the lower frequency ranges and here those are mostly for classical music and stuff so everything here is very explainable.

  8. I hear music and singing .. mostly singing ...they are ballad like and very beautiful; Complex songs I have never heard before, Kinda of between the old music from the 20's and the A capella amazing christian voices The voices are singing much louder than the music ..I could never replicate it . and many times i am not sleepy and can lay awake trying to sing along or hum along . Its nothing I would have ever picked out to listen too I have no musical talent whatsoever I cant imagine where these complex songs and lyrics are coming from .. I can hear most of the word cleary ..Really Really weird .. I do have tinnitus pretty bad.. But that doesnt go away when this is happening

  9. well put I too hear extremely complex music and vocals .. and have no talent whatsoever There is no way I could even humm some of the songs.. I can make out the words at night but by morning I cant remember them ... sometimes I will try to force the music to change and it just doesnt until it ready

  10. Since I can remember now I have heard 8 bit music in complete silence, so clear and definite I could sing it back. The crazy thing is when something else makes noise I assume I missed part of the song and I can choose to almost make selections as to the parts that replay but this changes the outcome most the time of what plays after. As well I have used it for making up riffs for guitar because I will hear something Im not familiar with but can manipulate it without understanding how and hear something new to play with. The finisher with much unsaid is that when i really begin to pick out the instruments I notice it is the ambient noises coming from around me but then how can you be so incontrol of the noise; or it be so exact to the song you are hearing when these noises are only producing steady vibrations and you can never say your in complete silence at any point so how do we manipulate the vibrations on a subconscious level and reenact such vivid and precise "sound hallucinogens" and wouldnt pin-pointing the way this takes place a chance to train your brain to do such with understanding and not blind use.
    I want to hear what people think or maybe similar stories and thoughts. My name is Daniel. reply

  11. I'm pleased I am not the only person hearing phantom is usually pop music ' it sounds as if a radio or television is playing in the next room I'm unable to make the words out , but sometimes it can be heavy metal or just pop music .Even wierder I have to wear earplugs when going to sleep at night' some nights I can hear heavy traffic' the problem is we live on a side street with very little traffic.....but just over a year ago we used to live on a very busy junction I found it difficult getting to sleep ...hence the earplugs.
    I do have some deafness , my wife thinks I'm crazy


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